One of the most challenging aspects of adopting agile is requirements gathering and definition. The challenge is not because agile has complex methods for describing requirements, rather quite the opposite. Agile methods such as writing a user story on an index card and then relying on conversations between developers, product owners, and users to carry the story through construction might work for simple systems but breaks down when the domain or requirements are complex.
Product owners typically take center stage in driving requirements definition. These product owners, many of whom come from business units (rather than IT), cobble together various methods for capturing and communicating requirements. This is done without the benefit of understanding the difference between structured, object-oriented, test scenario-based, or other industry-standard requirements methodologies and why those methodologies came to exist. At scale, user stories on index card approaches break down, leaving team members and businesses as collateral damage. Please do not misinterpret this as Product Owner bashing – developers are just as susceptible to thinking that they can handle complex problems without the benefit of structure.
Enter the Business Analyst. When a team is responsible for solving a large, complex problem, the business analyst works with the users, product owners and developers to root out key information. For applications through which there are significant data flows, this could mean creating (gasp!) data flow diagrams. For a highly-interactive, event-based system, this could be use case models or sequence diagrams. A good Business Analyst possesses a skill set that many developers and product owners lack: the ability to understand the complexity of requirements and the best way to capture them.
One trap to avoid is to have the Business Analyst become the conduit (a.k.a. bottleneck) through which all communication between the users and developers occurs. This collaboration continues to be important and valuable, and the Business Analyst is involved to ensure important details are surfaced and consistent with the overall application.
- A formal Business Analyst skillset is probably not necessary for simple applications.
- For complex applications, the Business Analyst plays a key role in ensuring that the right software is built.
As new high-priority features surface on a large program it can be tempting to give in to demands from stakeholders to assemble a team of the best people from the existing Scrum teams to build those features. Typically someone will suggest plucking the best people from the various Scrum teams and forming a task force. If anyone tries to talk you into doing this, don’t let them. In agile, restructuring the teams should be done sparingly and carefully. It takes a team of people several sprints (and sometimes months) to learn to work together effectively. Reorganized teams also represent change and the range of human factors that come with change. Large scale agile is about bringing the work to the teams, not assembling groups of people for each package of work that needs to be completed.
Another consideration when someone suggests putting together a task force is that it needs a Product Owner, Scrum Master and the various cross-functional roles such as BAs, QA, etc. to be covered. Gutting existing teams to staff these roles leaves the other teams in disarray. And, of course, we would never even consider sharing people across teams, would we?
The next time someone proposes a task force, take a look at how this work can be done by the teams already in place. Chances are pretty good that the work will be completed faster and better by the established teams.
One of the most fascinating management challenges is determining the best structure for Scrum teams based on the stage of the project. This does not mean the major waterfall phases like Analysis, Design, Construction, etc. When developing software for use by customers (especially niche SAAS products) and there is some level of customization or specific features for each client, there are at least a couple of distinct stages in the project:
- Develop the base product
- Develop client-specific features and convert those clients onto the system as those features are completed
Many agile writings suggest that the way to approach system development is to develop some features and put them in production right away so that clients can start using them immediately. In reality, this does not always work. For example, when an existing system is being replaced, clients cannot be put onto a new system that only has 20% of the functionality of the one being replaced. Of course, this does not preclude some form of testing of that 20% by users within the development organization (e.g. by internal client service reps who are also part of the user base).
Organizing for Base Product Development
Typically the base product development effort focuses on developing the major feature areas. The development teams can be organized along the lines of the features areas as depicted below.
Organizing for Client Conversions and Onboarding
As the base product nears completion and the teams start to work on client-specific features, the portfolio or program manager may start noticing that the client code complete date for one of the feature teams above is much later than the other teams because the bulk of the customization for that client falls on that one team. The net result is client on-boarding dates are further out in the future that delay realization of new revenue from the product. This is a clear sign that the team structures need to change. At this stage, the focus shifts to optimizing staff utilization while retaining the benefits of teams building features or feature slices from top to bottom. This is called Focused Balance. Work is focused as much as possible on one or a few teams to gain the efficiencies that come with understanding and ownership of the epic , but when necessary client-specific epics are spread across the teams to deliver them as soon as possible.
Restructuring the teams
When scheduling and work allocation issues require that multiple teams work on the same epic, the following should be considered when deciding who should be on each team:
- Knowledge about specific feature areas of the system.
- Technical skillsets. Rebalancing may be necessary when certain feature areas from the base development phase emphasized a particular technical skillset.
- Technical leadership – most teams need a technical leader.
Cross-Training and Collaboration
Team members will need to step out of their comfort zones and learn other parts of the system. Product owners, who have become experts in the feature areas that their teams constructed in the initial stages of development, will be overseeing a backlog that contains features and stories that are outside of their current area of expertise. Recognizing and fostering the need for collaboration across the teams is critical to the success of this model. At this stage, the job of the product owner is to connect team members with subject matter experts rather than being the subject matter experts.
- Team structure may need to change to optimize the schedule for client-specific feature development.
- Restructuring and rebalancing evenly distributes system knowledge and technical skills across the teams.
- The Product Owner’s role changes to be less of a subject matter expert for their team and more of a facilitator.
Experienced agile practitioners take for granted that detailed requirements are captured as user test cases. For organizations transitioning to agile, this is one of the more challenging practices for them to adopt. Some product owners or business analysts still view the traditional “requirements document” as the way to capture detailed requirements. Because of their attachment to this traditional form of documentation, many resist replacing them entirely with User Acceptance Test Cases (UATCs). They view UATCs as additional work on top of writing their traditional requirements.
UATCs better convey a sense of how the system is supposed to work by using examples rather than abstract, ambiguous business rules. In a mature agile organization, the end users are best qualified to write the UATCs. This underscores the product owner’s role: they do not need to gather every detailed requirement – their job is to connect the development team with subject matter experts rather than being a conduit between the two.
Working Software over Comprehensive Documentation
Taken to the extreme, only the highest-level details are written down. This can work for small, simple applications. For large, complex applications, this is insufficient and quickly leads to chaos, disappointment, and frustration. The key is not avoiding writing down requirements, it is capturing them ONCE so that they can be used by product owners, developers, users, and testers and be the one living artifact besides the software.
What options do teams have for adopting the practice of capturing requirements as test cases?
1) Developers write UATCs – while some might consider this sacrilege, in reality this is a great way to get started with UATCs and establish collaborative bonds between the development team and the end users. Of course the developers’ initial version of these will usually only reflect what is in the acceptance criteria and what was discussed during grooming, but it provides structure for gathering more details from the users. Users quickly see the value in this approach because the requirements are written in terms that they can understand – system behaviors. They also see the value in working directly with the developers. Product owners like this because it does not add to their workload and they quickly realize the benefits of the enhanced collaboration. One caveat: developers may need coaching about expressing things as tests and expected results since they may also be accustomed to thinking in terms of catch-all business rules rather than tests.
2) Developers and users write UATCs together – given some starting point such as a sketch of a web page, the developers and users talk through the expected behaviors for a user story. This feels time-consuming but it directly involves the users in the process of devising the test cases.
3) Users write UATCs – while this is UATC nirvana, it is important to remember that the developers and users still need to review the UATCs together and in detail. The test cases and end product always benefit from each group’s experience and perspective.
4) Users and testers write automated UATCs – for applications that are able to leverage automated end user testing tools like Fitnesse, users will likely need assistance with the testing toolset, format, etc.
Be pragmatic about who writes the UATCs. Remember the goal: collaboration that leads to deep understanding of expected system behavior.